Краткий статистический сборник содержит основные показатели, характеризующие научный и инновационный потенциал Российской Федерации. Приводятся сведения об интеллектуальной собственности, результативности исследований и разработок, данные международных сопоставлений.
В сборнике использованы материалы Росстата, Минобрнауки России, ОЭСР, Евростата, ЮНЕСКО, Роспатента, ВОИС, национальных статистических служб зарубежных стран, а также разработки Института статистических исследований и экономики знаний Национального исследовательского университета «Высшая школа экономики».
Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have been considered as the future vision for the automotive industry. An increasing number of concepts and prototypes have been introduced in the last decade. In parallel with the technological development, recent discussions about global warming and climate change bring public support for emission free vehicles. Despite of the advancements and support, the speed of introduction of FCEVs is still not at the desirable levels. From a transition management perspective, the present paper seeks to answer the underlying factors behind the implementation of the FCEVs. The discussion goes beyond a technical one to cover broad factors and interests of stakeholders with an ‘eagle-eye view’. Following a discussion the key drivers of change for the FCEV sector and wild cards with disruptive effects, the paper proposes a strategic roadmap template to set an agenda for a successful transition towards FCEVs.
This article presents the results of a survey of competitive intelligence (CI) practices in European firms. In comparing the results to a similar 2006 global study and a 2006 European CI study, it appears that the breadth of applications for CI has grown well beyond competitors to include customer related intelligence, technology, market, etc. Innovation is driving much intelligence activity, in particular research and development (R&D) and new product development decisions. CI is more formalised now in European firms than it was in 2006. The study also found similarities between corporate foresight and CI in terms of objectives (development and maintenance of competitive advantage, help with decision making) and analytical techniques with scenarios being among the more frequently used analytical techniques along with STEEP and other environmental analysis in both corporate foresight studies and the CI study.
Information and communication technology (ICT) has become a major driver of changes in economic, social, public and private life, leading to emergence of the Information Society and Digital Economy. Identification of key trends and analysis of transformation processes can only be made on the basis of reliable statistical data. Development of relevant international statistics play a leading role here hence, via establishing and updating relevant standards, it allows to measure development of the Information Society in a global scale, and benchmark positions of individual countries in the worldwide economic environment. ICT indicators are based on general (definitions and classifications, similar data collection methodologies) and specialised statistical standards, whereas harmonised methodology provides highly compatible indicators for different countries. The objective of this paper is to present a systemic overview of internationally accepted definitions of main ICT indicators based on accumulated methodological standards and practical experience.
The article identifies how the combination of concepts drawn from foresight and foresight networks can be used to help open innovation. We found that foresight can support open innovation by providing analysis that looks at key open innovation questions such as those around technology selection, identifying future customer needs and scanning for disruptions. Foresight can also help open innovation address some of the challenges that have been identified in the open innovation literature as barriers to effective open innovation. Foresight has experience around obtaining access to appropriate external experts and their knowledge; making sense of the mass of information that can emerge through a more open process, both areas that the open innovation literature has identified as being challenges to effective open innovation. Finally, a concept explored in this paper, foresight networks offer’s open innovation new ideas in innovative collaboration forms and how they can be pivotal in innovation and in assisting open innovation.
Much in line with what has been happening in developed economies for the past few decades, policy decision makers and industry strategists in developing countries have dedicated increased attention to initiatives that foster University-Industry Collaboration (UIC). The overarching goal is to enhance the capabilities/efficiencies of innovation systems, leveraging the role of universities as generators and disseminators of valuable knowledge, highly concentrated in academia in these laggard nations. In this article we empirically assess the extent to which institutional openness in universities towards UIC linkages affect the generation of knowledge-intensive spin-offs and academic patenting activity in the context of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We use data for 462 knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial projects related to academics receiving grants from the PIPE Program of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, as well as international patenting behavior for 126 universities and research institutes. Additionally, we have gathered data for UIC activity (2002–2010) in the affected region. The main novelty of our approach is to qualify UIC according to three different dimensions of openness, focusing on UIC levels and objects of collaboration. Results suggest that the quality of linkages (collaboration content) is a stronger predictor of both types of university entrepreneurship than the extent to which universities are connected to firms.